Mar
02
REFORMES : MA CONTRIBUTION SUR LES AVOCATS AU CONSEIL D'ETAT ET A LA COUR DE CASSATION

 

 

L’Autorité de la concurrence publie ce jour un communiqué de consultation publique dans le cadre de la préparation d’un avis sur la liberté d’installation des avocats au Conseil d’Etat et à la Cour de cassation.

 

L’Autorité rappelle qu’elle est chargée de donner un avis au ministre concerné quant à des recommandations pour améliorer l’accès aux offices concernés.

 

Elle écrit elle-même que la mission qui lui est dévolue revêt un caractère inédit et qu’à ce titre elle demeurera particulièrement attentive aux observations qui lui seront transmises par les acteurs concernés.

Voici ici la contribution de Maitre Bernard KUCHUKIAN,  avocat au barreau de Marseille, depuis 1969, sans interruption.  Avocat ordinaire, dans le sujet traité.

 

L’intéressé qui a fait toute sa carrière,  désormais finissante,  comme avocat  au barreau de Marseille, a bien failli la commencer comme magistrat  de l’ordre judiciaire, puisqu’il avait réussi  en rang honnête en 1969 au concours  d’entrée au Centre national d’études judiciaires,  comme auditeur de justice,  donc futur magistrat judiciaire, juste avant que la dénomination du C.N.E.J. ne passe en Ecole nationale de la magistrature. Il avait renoncé à la carrière de magistrat choisissant celle d’avocat.

Avec insistance, il  suggère  à l’Autorité de la concurrence –  justement en raison du caractère inédit de sa mission,- de se poser en préalable une question fondamentale.

 

Faut-il  maintenir en France, pays membre de l‘Union européenne, un corps spécial d’avocats,  ayant monopole pour accéder aux deux juridictions suprêmes que sont le Conseil d’Etat en matière administrative et la Cour de cassation en matière judiciaire.

 

De très grands pays comme les Etats-Unis ne connaissent pas un tel système monopolistique pour accéder aux cours suprêmes, et à celle fédérale.

Par ailleurs, et dès le 21 novembre 2013, il écrivait  ceci sur son blog d’avocat tenu à l’époque par le Conseil national des barreaux sous le nom de blogosphère,  et celui-ci ayant été fermé, accessible désormais sur le site « blog avocats » 

1°. On se sert, quant à la liberté des échanges et services, de la « directive services » européenne,  encore appelée BOLKENSTEIN.

Qui ne permet pas se justifier le monopole de représentation des avocats à la Cour de cassation et au Conseil d'Etat devant ces deux juridictions.

2°. On peut  constater que la France est pratiquement le seul Etat de l'Union à avoir un corps spécial d'avocats devant ces deux hautes juridictions. La France est donc une fois de plus hors la loi européenne.

3°. On peut  attaquer l'Etat français par un recours en excès de pouvoir devant le Conseil d'Etat pour lui imposer de rendre le droit français conforme à la directive précitée ;

4°. On lui demande d'abroger le 3° de l'art. 975 et les mots « au Conseil d'Etat et à la Cour de cassation » derrière les mots « signés d'un avocat au Conseil d'Etat et à la Cour de cassation », à l'art. 982 du Code de procédure civile.

 

Sur le même blog, l’auteur de la présente contribution a écrit des dizaines des billets qui ont souvent été commentés, et posent tous la question même de savoir si le maintien de ce corps particulier est encore nécessaire.

 

Ce n’est pas tout. La situation française est elle-même une contradiction interne.

C’est que le monopole des avocats en cause n’est pas absolu.

Certes, il est presque absolu en matière judiciaire, sauf cependant la matière pénale, et quelques « trous de gruyère » par-ci par-là.

En matière administrative, tout le pan de la matière si importante du  recours en excès de pouvoir échappe au monopole.

Cerise sur le gâteau, si l’expression est admise en parlant du  si sérieux et respectable Conseil constitutionnel, ce qui apparait justement comme l’instance la plus suprême des suprêmes,  au dessus du Conseil d’Etat et à la Cour de cassation, le monopole n’existe pas en représentation et  plaidoirie dans la matière de la question prioritaire de constitutionnalité.

Il en est de même à la fois devant la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme et aussi devant la Cour européenne de justice, celle de Luxembourg, pour les traités de l’Union européenne. Il y suffit d’être avocat. Ordinaire.

En bref, il faut se poser en préalable la question de savoir si la compétence particulière,  qui parait seule justifier l’existence d’un corps particulier d’avocats devant le Conseil d’Etat et la Cour de cassation  est aussi évidente qu’on le dit.

Et si celle d’un avocat de base, ordinaire ne suffit pas.

A cette question, le rapport du ZERP.

 

De l’université de Brème, consulté par la commission européenne quant à la comparaison des modes de passation des actes translatifs de propriété foncière  dans l’Union, avait déjà répondu sobrement, mais malheureusement dans le silence ensuite gardé prudemment.

En déclarant que la compétence d’un avocat moyen était suffisante, comparée à celle d’un notaire,  pour traiter des actes de mutation  immobilière.

Et puisqu’il s’agit d’Europe, il faut également savoir ce qui se passe ailleurs. Un exemple, un seul : l’ Italie par où les avocats ordinaires peuvent occuper à la Cour de cassation et y plaider pourvu que d’avoir réussi à une épreuve test de connaissances organisées régulièrement, ce qui leur permet d’être plusieurs milliers à arborer une fourragère dorée sur leur robe. Au lieu de la fourragère argentée des autres.

 

MARSEILLE 1er mars 2016

 

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