Jan
11
co-emploi : arrêt du 10 décembre 2015 de la cour de cassation

Hors état de subordination, une société faisant partie d'un groupe ne peut être considérée comme un coemployeur, à l'égard du personnel employé par une autre, que s'il existe entre elles, au-delà de la nécessaire coordination des actions économiques entre les sociétés appartenant à un même groupe et de l'état de domination économique que cette appartenance peut engendrer, une confusion d'intérêts, d'activités et de direction, se manifestant par une immixtion dans la gestion économique et sociale de cette dernière ;

Qu'en statuant comme elle l'a fait, alors que le fait que les dirigeants de la filiale proviennent du groupe et soient en étroite collaboration avec la société mère, et que celle-ci ait pris durant les quelques mois suivant la prise de contrôle de la filiale des décisions visant à sa réorganisation dans le cadre de la politique du groupe, puis ait renoncé à son concours financier destiné à éviter une liquidation judiciaire de la filiale, tout en s'impliquant dans les recherches de reclassement des salariés au sein du groupe, ne pouvait suffire à caractériser une situation de coemploi, la cour d'appel a violé le texte susvisé ;

Cour de cassation
chambre sociale
Audience publique du jeudi 10 décembre 2015
N° de pourvoi: 14-19316 14-19317 14-19318 14-19319 14-19320 14-19321 14-19322 14-19323 14-19324 14-19325 14-19326 14-19327 14-19328 14-19329 14-19330 14-19331 14-19332 14-19333 14-19334 14-19335 14-19336 14-19337 14-19338 14-19339 14-19340 14-19341 14-19342 14-19343 14-19344 14-19345 14-19346 14-19347 14-19348 14-19349 14-19350 14-19351 14-19352 14-19353 14-19354 14-19355 14-19356 14-19357 14-19358 14-19359 14-19360 14-19361 14-19362 14-19363 14-19364 14-19365 14-19366 14-19367 14-19368 14-19369 14-19370 14-19371 14-19372 14-19373 14-19374 14-19375 14-19376 14-19377 14-19378 14-19379 14-19380 14-19381 14-19382 14-19383 14-19384 14-19385 14-19386 14-19387 14-19388 14-19389 14-19390 14-19391 14-19392 14-19393 14-19394 14-19395 14-19396 14-19397 14-19398 14-19399 14-19400 14-19401 14-19402 14-19403 14-19404 14-19405 14-19406 14-19407 14-19408 14-19409 14-19410 14-19411 14-19412 14-19413 14-19414 14-19415 14-19416 14-19417 14-19418 14-19419 14-19420 14-19421 14-19422 14-19423 14-19424 14-19425 14-19426 14-19427 14-19428 14-19429 14-19430 14-19431 14-19432 14-19433 14-19434 14-19435 14-19436 14-19437 14-19438 14-19439 14-19440 14-19441 14-19442 14-19443 14-19444 14-19445 14-19446 14-19447 14-19448 14-19449 14-19450 14-19451 14-19452 14-19453 14-19454 14-19455 14-19456 14-19457 14-19458 14-19459 14-19460 14-19461 14-19462 14-19463 14-19464 14-19465 14-19466 14-19467 14-19468 14-19469 14-19470 14-19471 14-19472 14-19473 14-19474

Publié au bulletin Cassation partielle

M. Frouin (président), président
SCP Baraduc, Duhamel et Rameix, SCP Gatineau et Fattaccini, SCP Masse-Dessen, Thouvenin et Coudray, avocat(s)


REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE

AU NOM DU PEUPLE FRANCAIS

 

LA COUR DE CASSATION, CHAMBRE SOCIALE, a rendu l'arrêt suivant :

Vu leur connexité joint les pourvois n° K14-19. 316 à H 14-19. 474 ;

Sur le moyen unique commun aux pourvois :

Vu l'article L. 1221-1 du code du travail ;

Attendu, selon les arrêts attaqués, que la société FAYAT et les actionnaires de la société Etablissements J. Richard Ducros, employant, au 5 mai 2010, un effectif de deux cent quatre-vingt-quatre salariés répartis sur quatre sites, dont le principal était situé à Alès, ont signé une convention d'achat d'actions en exécution de laquelle les ordres de mouvement de titres ont été réalisés au bénéfice de la société FAYAT le 24 novembre 2010, devenant actionnaire unique ; que par jugement du 3 février 2011, le tribunal de commerce de Paris a ouvert une procédure de redressement judiciaire à l'égard de la société Etablissements J. Richard Ducros convertie en liquidation judiciaire par jugement du 5 mai 2011 qui a désigné la SCP BTSG en la personne de M. Y..., mandataire judiciaire, en qualité de liquidateur ; que ce dernier a élaboré un plan de sauvegarde de l'emploi et procédé au licenciement pour motif économique de l'ensemble des salariés de la société Etablissements J. Richard Ducros ; que ceux-ci ont saisi la juridiction prud'homale de demandes en paiement de sommes au titre d'indemnité de licenciement nul ou sans cause réelle et sérieuse, du manquement à l'obligation de formation, et pour certains, de la gratification due pour la médaille d'honneur, formulées à titre principal à l'encontre de la société FAYAT, en qualité de coemployeur ;

Attendu que pour faire droit à ces demandes, les arrêts retiennent qu'un lien de dépendance existait entre les directions des deux sociétés, conforté notamment par le fait que M. Z..., directeur puis président du conseil d'administration de la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros et ancien salarié d'une filiale de la société FAYAT, se rendait très régulièrement au siège de la société mère et était en contact téléphonique permanent avec la direction de celle-ci ; que dans le même temps des responsables de la société FAYAT ont été présents au sein de la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros, avec une implication dans la gestion de cette société par les tentatives de transfert de toute la téléphonie mobile sur l'opérateur Fayat et la mise en compatibilité du réseau informatique entre les deux sociétés, puis dans le cadre de réunions par services dites de présentations ; que dans la gestion du personnel, les responsables de la société Fayatont donné des consignes pour licencier l'ancien directeur des ressources humaines ou envisager la mise à la retraite du responsable du service informatique et se sont, par la suite, impliqués dans la recherche de reclassement au sein du groupe Fayatdes salariés de la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros lors de la mise en place du plan de sauvegarde de l'emploi ; qu'enfin des impulsions ont été données par la société mère pour le règlement de litiges en cours de la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros avec l'étroite collaboration du service juridique du groupe Fayat et pour des choix stratégiques en matière commerciale et industrielle, tels que l'abandon d'une candidature à un appel d'offres au profit d'une autre filiale du groupe Fayat, l'abandon de tout investissement sur lequel il a été partiellement revenu ou de l'abandon d'un projet de construction de bennes en raison d'imputation des coûts d'études rendant les prix non compétitifs ; que l'ensemble de ces éléments de faits permet d'affirmer que la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros avait perdu toute autonomie administrative, commerciale et industrielle, ce que conforte le refus de la société Fayatd'apporter le concours financier initialement prévu lors de la cession afin d'éviter la liquidation judiciaire d'une entreprise antérieurement concurrente, en sorte que la société Fayatdoit être déclarée coemployeur des salariés de la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros ; que la société Fayatn'invoquant pas l'existence de difficulté économique de sa branche « métal », les licenciements économiques des salariés de la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros sont sans cause réelle et sérieuse ;

Attendu cependant que, hors état de subordination, une société faisant partie d'un groupe ne peut être considérée comme un coemployeur, à l'égard du personnel employé par une autre, que s'il existe entre elles, au-delà de la nécessaire coordination des actions économiques entre les sociétés appartenant à un même groupe et de l'état de domination économique que cette appartenance peut engendrer, une confusion d'intérêts, d'activités et de direction, se manifestant par une immixtion dans la gestion économique et sociale de cette dernière ;

Qu'en statuant comme elle l'a fait, alors que le fait que les dirigeants de la filiale proviennent du groupe et soient en étroite collaboration avec la société mère, et que celle-ci ait pris durant les quelques mois suivant la prise de contrôle de la filiale des décisions visant à sa réorganisation dans le cadre de la politique du groupe, puis ait renoncé à son concours financier destiné à éviter une liquidation judiciaire de la filiale, tout en s'impliquant dans les recherches de reclassement des salariés au sein du groupe, ne pouvait suffire à caractériser une situation de coemploi, la cour d'appel a violé le texte susvisé ;

PAR CES MOTIFS :

CASSE ET ANNULE, mais seulement en ce qu'ils ont reconnu à la société Fayat la qualité de coemployeur des salariés de la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros, condamné la société Fayat à verser aux salariés des sommes au titre du licenciement, du manquement à l'obligation de formation et à certains de la gratification due pour la médaille d'honneur, dit les licenciements pour motif économique des salariés sans cause réelle et sérieuse, ordonné le remboursement par la société Fayat à Pôle emploi des indemnités de chômage versées aux salariés, ordonné l'inscription des sommes allouées aux salariés au titre du licenciement sans cause réelle et sérieuse à l'état des créances à la liquidation judiciaire de la société Etablissement J. Richard Ducros, les arrêts rendus le 15 avril 2014, entre les parties, par la cour d'appel de Nîmes ; remet, en conséquence, sur ces points, la cause et les parties dans l'état où elles se trouvaient avant lesdits arrêts et, pour être fait droit, les renvoie devant la cour d'appel d'Aix-en-Provence ;

Condamne les salariés aux dépens ;

Vu l'article 700 du code de procédure civile, rejette les demandes ;

Dit que sur les diligences du procureur général près la Cour de cassation, le présent arrêt sera transmis pour être transcrit en marge ou à la suite des arrêts partiellement cassés ;

Ainsi fait et jugé par la Cour de cassation, chambre sociale, et prononcé par le président en son audience publique du dix décembre deux mille quinze.

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