Nov
19
Livraison par drones : la nouvelle boite aux lettres?

Le projet SKYNET HD de Clinton Burchat (voir la vidéo : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aru-pIR_G3U ) propose une solution qui permet de faire rentrer la livraison par drone dans la "vrai vie" (à condition d'avoir résolu la question règlementaire du vol hors visibilité en zone peuplée...).

La problématique étant que les drones de livraison (type Amazone, Pizza30 ou Google) sont des solutions adaptées à un dépôt en zone rurale ou pavillonnaire, compte tenu de leur solution, qui consiste à déposer la marchandise sur le perron du destinataire, ce qui pose le problème de la présence d'animaux ou d'enfants dans le jardin...

Les autres solutions (largage à basse altitude ou treuillage) sont totalement exclues, compte tenu de la règlementation OACI qui interdit le largage d'objets depuis un aéronef civil en mouvement.

Ces solutions ne permettent pas de proposer une solution commerciale de livraison par drone en zone urbaine, dans des appartements en étage.

Une solution présentée à l'occasion d'un concours international (DronesForGood, concours organisé par les Emirats Arabes Unis à Dubaï) est particulièrement intéressante, en ce qu'elle crée une drop-zone dédiée à chaque appartement, en installant un panier de réception en jardinière sur le balcon ou la fenêtre du destinataire.
Cette Drop-Zone individuelle serait donc située en dehors de l'appartement, hors d'atteinte des animaux de compagnie ou des enfants.

La solution paraît particulièrement simple, chaque "dop-zone" étant identifiée par un tag 2D ou un code barre, ainsi que des diodes permettant au drone de se positionner pour lire le tag et avancer au point de largage.

Reste, à mon avis, le plus compliquer : définir (pour la France) le scénario de vol de ces engins.
Il s'agirait d'un scénario de vol hors vue, en mode paramétrique et en zone peuplée. Trois importantes complications qui font que ces scénarios ne pourront être autorisés que dans le cadre d'une mission de service publique (colis postal), avec un opérateur qui justifiera d'un niveau de formation des opérateurs et de capacité des appareils qui dépasse à mon avis le livreur de pizza du coin...

Par ailleurs, il faudra déterminer la hauteur de vol admissible. Ainsi, si le drone peut voler jusqu'à 150 m d'un obstacle, la question se pose de la hauteur de l'obstacle par rapport au sol. Sera-t'il un jour règlementairement possible de livrer une tour?

A mon sens, une solution plus adaptée aux zones urbaines serait de créer une drop-zone collective par immeuble, dont la gestion serait confiée au gardien de l'immeuble, lequel est déjà chargé de délivrer le courrier aux habitants.

Ariel DAHAN
Avocat
Droit des Drones, Droit des Transports

Skynet Delivery System - une drop-zone individuelle

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