Feb
23
Barème El Khomri : montant des indemnités que peuvent obtenir les salariés aux prud’hommes en cas de licenciement sans cause réelle et sérieuse (avant projet de loi)

Le Gouvernement veut supprimer la faculté que possède le juge prud’homal d’apprécier le montant des indemnités pour licenciement sans cause réelle et sérieuse, des salariés qui contestent leur licenciement devant le Conseil de prud’hommes.

A l’appréciation du juge, le Gouvernement veut substituer un barème de dommages-intérêts pour licenciement sans cause réelle et sérieuse, en fonction de l’ancienneté du salarié.

En tout état de cause, ce barème El Khomri ne sera applicable que pour les saisines prud’homales intervenant après l’entrée en vigueur de la loi (soit en juin ou juillet 2016) ; pour les procédures prud’homales en cours, ce barème (s’il est voté) ne sera pas applicable.

1) Régime actuel : au moins 6 mois de salaires en cas de licenciement sans cause (salariés de plus de 2 ans d’ancienneté dans une entreprise de plus de 10 salariés)

En cas de licenciement sans cause réelle et sérieuse, l’article L. 1235-3 du code du travail impose au juge de verser au salarié un minimum de six mois de salaire en cas de licenciement sans cause (salariés de plus de 2 ans d’ancienneté dans une entreprise de plus de 10 salariés).

L’indemnité de 6 mois de salaire est un minimum, le juge peut accorder au salarié plus de 6 mois de salaire à titre de dommages intérêts, si le salarié peut justifier d’un préjudice supplémentaire (chômage, difficultés financières), ce préjudice est apprécié à la date d’audience.

Si le salarié possède moins de 2 ans d’ancienneté ou qu’il appartient à une entreprise de 10 salariés au plus, les dommages intérêts pour rupture abusive sont déterminés en fonction du préjudice subi (article L. 1235-5 du code du travail). Ce préjudice est apprécié également par le juge.

2) Barème El Khomri : en cas de licenciement sans cause, le montant des dommages intérêts est plafonné suivant l'ancienneté du salarié

2.1) Le montant du barème El Khomri pour licenciement sans cause

L’article 30 qui modifie l’article L. 1235-3 du code du travail qui fixe les indemnités pour licenciement sans cause des salariés.

Cet article 30 est inséré dans le Titre IV de l’avant-projet de loi intitulé « Favoriser l’emploi » et dans le chapitre 1er intitulé « Faciliter la vie des TPE et PME et favoriser l’embauche ».

Cet article 30 prévoit qu’un salarié, en cas de licenciement sans cause, percevrait une indemnité qui ne pourrait pas dépasser une somme forfaitaire maximum déterminée en fonction de l’ancienneté comme suit :

– 3 mois de salaire si l’ancienneté du salarié est de moins de deux ans ;

– 6 mois de salaire si l’ancienneté du salarié est d’au moins deux ans et de moins de cinq ans ;

– 9 mois de salaire si l’ancienneté du salarié est d’au moins cinq ans et de moins de dix ans ;

– 12 mois de salaire si l’ancienneté du salarié est d’au moins 10 ans et de moins de 20 ans ;

– 15 mois de salaire si l’ancienneté du salarié est d’au moins 20 ans (nouvel article L. 1235-3).

La révolution est qu’il n’y a plus de minimum par rapport à la législation actuelle (cf 1 ci-dessus) et surtout que le montant de l’indemnité de licenciement sans cause est aussi plafonné.

Ce barème serait également applicable en cas de résiliation judiciaire du contrat de travail ou en cas de prise d’acte de la rupture.

L’indemnité ci-dessus est cumulable avec celle éventuellement prévue pour irrégularité de procédure et en cas de non-respect de la priorité de réembauchage.

2.2) 4 cas d’exclusion du barème El Khomri

Le juge pourrait accorder au salarié une indemnité d’un montant supérieur aux plafonds prévus par le barème en cas de faute de l’employeur d’une particulière gravité et notamment dans les cas suivants :

  • harcèlement moral ou sexuel ;
  • licenciement discriminatoire ou consécutif à une action en justice en matière d’égalité professionnelle ou de corruption ;
  • violation du droit de grève ou de l’exercice d’un mandat par un salarié protégé ;
  • atteinte aux libertés fondamentales.

En août 2015, le barème Macron avait été invalidé par le Conseil Constitutionnel (cf notre brève).

http://www.village-justice.com/articles/Conseil-constitutionnel-censure,...

Il reste à voir si le barème El Khomri passera les fourches caudines du Parlement et du conseil constitutionnel.

 

Frédéric CHHUM Avocat à la Cour

4, rue Bayard 75008 Paris

Tél : 01 42 89 24 48 Ligne directe : 01 42 56 03 00

e-mail : chhum@chhum-avocats.com

blog: www.chhum-avocats.fr

http://twitter.com/#!/fchhum

 

 

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