frederic.chhum

Par frederic.chhum le 20/11/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 13 heures 36 min

Since the two opinions given by the Court of Cassation on 17 July 2019 (1), the first judgments of the Courts of Appeal ruling on the conformity of the provisions of Article L. 1235-3 of the Labor Code (2) with the international texts were eagerly awaited. After the Reims Court of Appeal on September 25 (3), the Court of Appeal of Paris was positioned on October 30 following (4).

1. From recall of facts to dismissal without real and serious cause

Mr. X. was hired as a Junior Analyst on December 31, 2003, on a permanent contract, with a resumption of seniority on March 1, 2001, when he began to practice in the employing company as an analyst. technical.

He was dismissed 16 years later, on the ground that he had demonstrated a "mistrust of [his] hierarchy" and would have demonstrated "hostility [behavior] considered unacceptable". He is also reproached for having "[refused] to learn Python language", which would have resulted in the assignment of another employee urgently on the task at hand.

The employee tries to make say and judge that the rupture of his contract of employment is analyzed in a dismissal without real and serious cause. He relies in particular on the prescription of the facts alleged against him, which date in large part "from April to October 2017". The only alleged wrongful act - the refusal to train "in the Python language" - is considered to be "not characterized or proven" by the Paris Court of Appeal.

The judges of the merits therefore considered that "the dismissal of Mr X must be declared devoid of real and serious cause".

Thus the fight over the compliance of the "Macron Scale" scale provided for in Article L. 1235-3 of the Labor Code was opened again.

2. The decision of October 30th, 2019 (Pole 6, Chamber 8)

Although the employer tried to remove them from the dispute, the unions CGT, CGT-FO, Solidaires and CFDT intervened.

Indeed, regarding the conventionality of the scale, they considered that "the debate goes beyond the employer / employee relationship".

The unions taken as a whole and Mr X. have put forward several arguments to remove the scales.

The opportunity was therefore given to the Paris Court of Appeal to rule in an unprecedented manner in relation to the opinions given by the Court of Cassation on July 17 (op cit).

2.1. The conformity of the Macron scale (bareme Macron) with Articles 6 and 13 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (5)

Considering that Article 6 of the said Convention, which guarantees "the right to a fair trial", does not have to apply to the material limitations of the right to compensation following dismissal without serious cause, the Court rejects this argument.

It reserves the same fate with the invocation of Article 13 preserving the right to an "effective remedy before a national authority" by considering that between the limits of the scale "it is up to the judge seized to the substance to decide".

2.2. The conformity of the Macron scale with Article 24 of the European Social Charter

Similarly, the plea based on compliance with the "provisions of Article 24 of the European Social Charter revised on 3 May 1996" (6) is unsuccessful according to the judges, for whom these provisions "do not have direct effect in law". in a dispute between private individual "and" can not usefully be invoked by the appellant and the intervening parties to see the provisions of Article L.1235-3 of the Labor Code ".

2.3. The conformity of the Macron scale (Bareme Macron) with Articles 20, 21 and 30 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

The unions argued "that the scale established by Article L.1235-3 of the Labor Code, by not providing other criteria for differentiation that the seniority of the employee and the workforce of the company" treated "of employees in different situations in breach of the principles of non-discrimination and equal treatment 'as laid down in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (7).

For their part, the judges of the Court of Appeal of Paris, in the judgment of October 30, 2019, found that "the provisions of Article L.1235-3 of the Labor Code leave between a minimum limit and a maximum limit expressed in months of gross salary ".

Thus, there remains "a discretionary power to the court of the merits, so that compensation meets the particular situation of the employee, by taking into account criteria other than seniority, such as age, family situation, the difficulty of finding a job "so that" the alleged inequality of treatment is not demonstrated ".

On this point, the Court of Cassation had not pronounced in its two opinions rendered in July 2019. The Court of Appeal completely rejects this plea.

2.4. The conformity of the Macron Schedule with Articles 4, 9 and 10 of ILO Convention No. 158 (8)

To begin with, the judges of the merits consider that "these articles of Convention No. 158 on the dismissal of the International Labor Organization are of direct application in domestic law".

The Court of Appeal states that "the introduction of a scale is not in itself contrary to the texts referred to by the appellant and the voluntary unions".

Indeed, the scale would "guarantee to the employee" adequate compensation or appropriate compensation "" since "the French judge within the framework of the minimum and maximum amounts enacted on the basis of the seniority of the employee and the number of employees. the company, [keep] a margin of appreciation "(CA Paris, October 30, 2019).

And to conclude that "it is appropriate to allocate to Mr X the sum of 67 900 euros corresponding to the equivalent of 13 months of gross wages, this amount offering adequate compensation for the damage resulting from the unfounded nature of the dismissal".

3. For the Paris Court of Appeal: from flexibility to firmness

The breach of non-compliance with international texts was quietly opened by the Court of Appeal of Paris, Pole 6, Chamber 3, in a first judgment dated 18 September 2019 (9).

Indeed, it stated that in accordance with the requirements of Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 158 and Article 24 of the European Charter, "compensation up to the two months provided for in the scale of constitutes an adequate and appropriate compensation for the particular situation ".

Consequently, there was "no need to derogate from the regulatory scale and to consider the scale contrary to the above-mentioned conventions".

The wording could have hit the nail on the head because the answer was expressly circumscribed "to the situation of the species", which did not require a "derogation from the regulatory scale".

On reading such a formulation, the possibility was open to the judge to reject the scale whenever he considered it necessary.

Article L. 1235-3 would have lost its binding nature.

For its part, the Court of Appeal of Reims, by the judgment rendered on September 25, 2019, appeared to rush indirectly into the same breach. For its part, it decided that "the control of conventionality does not dispense, in the presence of a device deemed conventional, to assess whether it does not disproportionately affect the rights of the employee concerned".

Thus, it stated that it was possible to conduct a "search for proportionality, this time heard" in concreto "and not" in abstracto ", which should have been" requested by the employee ".

However, the Court of Appeal of Paris (Pole 6, Chamber 8) has departed well from such convolutions to make a judgment that leaves no room for doubt.

A question continues to animate the commentators: will the dissensions between the province and the capital flourish even in the Courts of Appeal so that the scale is spread elsewhere in France?

 

Opinion of the Court of Cassation rendered on July 17, 2019, n ° 15012 and 15013:

https://www.courdecassation.fr/jurisprudence_2/avis_15/avis_classes_date_239/2019_9218/17_juillet_2019_1970010_9442/15012_17_43209.html et https://www.courdecassation.fr/jurisprudence_2/avis_15/avis_classes_date_239/2019_9218/17_juillet_2019_1970011_9443/15013_17_43210.html

L. 1235-3, Labor Code: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do?idArticle=LEGIARTI000036762052&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006072050&dateTexte=20180401 Court of Appeal of Reims, September 25, 2019: https://www.dalloz-actualite.fr/sites/dalloz-actualite.fr/files/resources/2019/09/doc250919-25092019123807.pdf Court of Appeal of Paris, October 30, 2019: https://revuefiduciaire.grouperf.com/plussurlenet/complements/CA_Paris_30_10_19_Bareme_Macron.pdf European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights, art. 6 and 13: https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf Article 24 of the European Social Charter guarantees the "right to protection in the event of dismissal": https://www.cncdh.fr/sites/default/files/charte_sociale_europeenne_revisee_0.pdf  (7) Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, art. 20, 21 and 3: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf

(8) ILO Convention No. 158, art. 10: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C158

(9) Court of Appeal of Paris, September 18, 2019:

 

Frédéric CHHUM avocat et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

e-mail: chhum@chhum-avocats.com

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

Par frederic.chhum le 20/11/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 13 heures 58 min

La brèche de la non-conformité aux textes internationaux avait discrètement été ouverte par la Cour d’appel de Paris, Pôle 6, Chambre 3, dans un premier arrêt en date du 18 septembre 2019 .

En effet, il y était énoncé que conformément aux exigences posé par l’article 10 de la Convention n° 158 de l’OIT et par l’article 24 de la Charte européenne, « la réparation à hauteur des deux mois prévus par le barème constitue une réparation du préjudice adéquate et appropriée à la situation d’espèce ».

Par conséquence, il n’y avait « pas lieu de déroger au barème réglementaire et de considérer le dit barème contraire aux conventions précitées ».

La formulation avait pu faire mouche puisque la réponse apportée était expressément circonscrite « à la situation d’espèce », qui ne nécessitait pas de « déroger au barème » réglementaire.

A la lecture d’une telle formulation, était ouverte la possibilité pour le juge d’écarter le barème dès lors qu’il le jugeait nécessaire.

L’article L. 1235-3 aurait perdu de son caractère contraignant.

Pour sa part, la Cour d’appel de Reims, par l’arrêt rendu le 25 septembre 2019, faisait mine de s’engouffrer indirectement dans la même brèche.

Elle a décidé que « le contrôle de conventionnalité ne dispense pas, en présence d’un dispositif jugé conventionnel, d’apprécier s’il ne porte pas une atteinte disproportionnée aux droits du salarié concerné ».

Ainsi, elle disposait qu’il était possible de mener une « recherche de proportionnalité, entendue cette fois « in concreto » et non « in abstracto », qui aurait cependant dû être « demandée par le salarié ».

Il demeure cependant que la Cour d’appel de Paris (Pôle 6, Chambre 8) s’est bien écartée de telles circonvolutions pour rendre un arrêt qui ne laisse pas de place au doute.

Une question continue d’animer les commentateurs : les dissensions entre la province et la capitale prospèreront-elles jusque dans les Cours d’appel de sorte que le barème se trouve écarté ailleurs en France ? A suivre.

Pour lire l’intégralité de la brève, cliquez sur le lien ci-dessous :

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/bareme-macron-pour-licenciement-sans-cause-pour-paris-est-conforme-paris,33001.html#xI7tsTBQAJL1gJad.99

Frédéric CHHUM avocat et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

e-mail: chhum@chhum-avocats.com

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

Par frederic.chhum le 11/11/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 1 semaine 2 jours

In its decision of October 17th 2019, the Labor Court of Paris (référés), ruling in summary proceedings, orders on the basis of Article 145 of the French Code of Civil Procedure to the company to produce the register of entry and staff release (period 2008 to 2018) and payslips (period 2016 to 2018) of 16 of Ms. X's colleagues.

The parties may appeal the order.

1) Reminder of the facts

Ms. X was hired, as of June 15, 2008, as Accounting Manager in the general accounting department of RE: SOURCES FRANCE, for an average monthly salary of € 3,667 for a 35-hour weekly schedule.

Ms. X was placed under the responsibility of a supervisor, Mrs. Y, who was under the responsibility of Mr. Z.

As of November 2009, Ms. X was on sick leave for 4 months due to hospitalization due to the declaration of a serious and chronic autoimmune disease.

On her return, while Ms. X resumed her position in therapeutic part-time, in accordance with the recommendations of her doctor and the occupational physician, she discovered that her duties and her office had been entrusted to another employee.

No part-time work rider was regularized according to his therapeutic part-time.

In April 2013, she was classified in first category disability and continues her collaboration in "part-time disability" starting in June 2013.

Ms. X was notified of her dismissal for professional deficiencies on August 28, 2018.

Believing that she had been the victim of discrimination based on her state of health, manifested by a lack of evolution of her salary for several years, Ms. X appealed to the Labor Court of Paris in her summary hearing. April 25, 2019 of a request for documents by the employer.

2) Decision of Paris conseil de prud’hommes dated October 17, 2019 (départage référés)

The Parisian Conseil de prud'hommes sitting in summary proceedings, ruling by contradictory order and at first instance:

• Orders RE: SOURCES FRANCE to produce the following documents within one month of the notification of this decision and under an overall penalty of 50 euros per day of delay for four months:

- The register of entry and exit of the staff of the company RE: SOURCES FRANCE for the period 2008/2018;

- The pay slips for the years 2016, 2017 and 2018 as well as the payslips for the month of December of each year since they hired the 16 employees referred to in the plaintiff's conclusions;

• Condemns the company RE: SOURCES FRANCE to pay Ms. X a sum of 800 euros on the basis of Article 700 of the Code of Civil Procedure;

• Recalls that this order is subject to provisional execution by operation of law.

2.1) In law

According to Article R. 1455-5 of the Labor Code, the preliminary ruling may, within the limits of the jurisdiction of the industrial tribunals, order all measures which do not meet any serious challenge or which justify the existence of a dispute;

According to Article R. 1455-6 of the same Code, the preliminary ruling can always, even in the presence of a serious dispute, prescribe the necessary conservatory or reinstatement measures, either to prevent damage imminent, either to stop a clearly unlawful disorder;

It follows from the provisions of Article L. 1132-1 of the Labor Code that no employee may be the subject of a discriminatory measure, direct or indirect, particularly as regards remuneration, because of its origin, sex, morals, sexual orientation, age, marital status or pregnancy, genetic characteristics, membership or non-membership, true or supposed, of an ethnic group, nation or race, its political opinions, its trade union or mutualist activities.

Article L. 1142-1 of the French Labor Code provides that no one may refuse to hire a person, make a transfer, terminate or refuse to renew the employment contract of an employee in consideration of gender, the status of family or pregnancy on the basis of different selection criteria according to sex, family status or pregnancy.

Article L. 1144-1 of the French Labor Code provides that when a dispute arises concerning the application of the provisions of Articles L. 1142-1 and L. 1142-2, the candidate for a job or the employee presents elements in fact suggesting direct or indirect discrimination on the grounds of sex, family status or pregnancy. In the light of these elements, it is incumbent on the defendant to prove that its decision is justified by objective factors unrelated to any discrimination.

In accordance with the provisions of Article 145 of the Code of Civil Procedure, if there is a legitimate reason for keeping or establishing before any trial the proof of facts which could be relied on in the solution of a dispute, the measures of inquiry lawfully may be ordered at the request of any interested party, on request or in summary proceedings.

It is a matter of principle that this procedure is not limited to the preservation of evidence and may also tend to their establishment.

2.2) In this particular case

The departing judge states that "In this case, the employee establishes the stagnation of her earnings as of her health difficulties and justifies having lodged claims with the employer as of 2011, also surprised by the absence of payment of the balance sheet premium she received prior to her sick leave.

In view of the elements of the discussions, it appears that the employee has a monthly increase of 40 euros in 2013, on the occasion of its passage to the package / days then 50 euros in June 2018, a monthly increase of 90 euros on eight years, as part of a general increase.

This situation is verified by the Accounting Director, Mrs Y, who indicates: "Every year, the supervisors evaluated the employees of their team and consulted each year with Mr. Z about increases in salaries and bonuses. From 2010 to 2016, I asked for an increase and bonus each year for Mrs. X, which I was very satisfied with. Mr. Z always put his name on the list (...) and deliberately blocked Ms. X's salary, I noticed that he was working on her, she is the only employee I saw in the team general accounting have no salary increase for many years ".

It therefore appears that the applicant has a legitimate reason for requesting the disclosure of documents in order to support any action on the basis of discrimination, since the anonymised documents produced by the employer do not allow a valid examination to be carried out. the wage situation ".

The presiding judge points out that "it should be recalled that respect for the private lives of employees can not in itself constitute an obstacle to the application of the provisions of Article 145 if the measure sought is based on a legitimate ground and is necessary to preserve the rights of the plaintiff ".

The Labor Court partially grants its request and order RE: SOURCES FRANCE to produce the following documents, within one month from the notification of this decision and under an overall penalty of 50 euros per day late for four months:

- The register of entry and exit of the staff of the company RE: SOURCES FRANCE for the period 2008/2018;

- Pay slips for the years 2016, 2017 and 2018 as well as payslips for December each year since the hiring of the 16 employees referred to in the Plaintiff's submissions.

It is allocated to the plaintiff a sum of 800 euros on the basis of Article 700 of the Code of Civil Procedure. The company RE: SOURCES FRANCE will be rejected of its request in this respect.

In a similar case, in an decision of April 6th 2018, the Labor Court of Paris (référés départage) had ordered FRANCE TELEVISIONS to communicate the career assessment of 19 of its employees (see our article - Discrimination: FRANCE TELEVISIONS must communicate to a salaried journalist the career assessment of its 19 colleagues – https://www.village-justice.com/articles/discrimination-the-proud-men-order-france-televisions-communicate,29113.html )

Article in French : Discrimination et référé article 145 du CPC : une salariée obtient les bulletins de paie de ses 16 collègues

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/discrimination-refere-article-145-cpc-une-salariee-obtient-les-bulletins-paie,32853.html

Frédéric CHHUM avocat et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

e-mail: chhum@chhum-avocats.com

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

 

 

Par frederic.chhum le 03/11/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 2 semaines 3 jours

Le présent article synthétise les principales dispositions sur la réglementation des trottinettes motorisée issues du décret du 23 octobre 2019.

On aime les trottinettes ou on les déteste ; en tout cas, elles entrent dans le Code de la route avec le décret n° 2019-1082 du 23 octobre 2019 (JO 25 octobre 2019).

Équipement obligatoire pour circuler en trottinette motorisée.

Tout conducteur de trottinette à moteur doit :

a) Être coiffé d’un casque conforme à la réglementation relative aux équipements de protection individuelle, qui doit être attaché ;

b) Porter, soit un gilet de haute visibilité conforme à la réglementation, soit un équipement rétro-réfléchissant dont les caractéristiques sont fixées par arrêté du ministre chargé de la sécurité routière ;

c) Porter sur lui un dispositif d’éclairage complémentaire non éblouissant et non clignotant dont les caractéristiques sont fixées par arrêté du ministre chargé de la sécurité routière ;

d) Circuler, de jour comme de nuit, avec les feux de position de son engin allumés.

La personne âgée d’au moins dix-huit ans qui accompagne un conducteur de trottinette motorisée âgé de moins de dix-huit ans doit s’assurer, lorsqu’elle exerce une autorité de droit ou de fait sur ce ou ces conducteurs, que chacun est coiffé d’un casque dans les conditions prévues au a) ci-dessus.

Pour lire l’intégralité de la brève, cliquez sur le lien ci-dessous.

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/decret-trottinettes-octobre-2019-les-regles-circulation-stationnement,32837.html#p8uxggd2ojd3H5I0.99

 

Frédéric CHHUM, Avocats à la Cour et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

e-mail : chhum@chhum-avocats.com

http://twitter.com/#!/fchhum

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

Par frederic.chhum le 01/11/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 2 semaines 5 jours

En 2018, le Cabinet CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes et Lille) a obtenu les jurisprudences suivantes devant le conseil de prud'hommes ou devant la cour d’appel.

1)Requalification de CDDU en CDI (intermittents du spectacle, journalistes, intérimaires, salariés en portage salarial)

1.1) Requalification de CDDU en CDI et licenciement sans cause 

La Cour d’Appel de Paris requalifie les 32 ans de CDDU en CDI d’un réalisateur d’émissions religieuses de FRANCE TELEVISIONS à temps complet et la rupture de la collaboration est considérée sans cause ; ce dernier obtient 213.000 euros bruts (Cour d’appel de Paris (pôle 6 – chambre 6), 28 novembre 2018, arrêt non définitif).

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/intermittents-realisateur-cddu-france-televisions-requalifie-cdi-obtient-213,30151.html

1.2) Requalification de CDDU en CDI et licenciement sans cause 

Dans trois jugements de départage, le Conseil de prud’hommes de Boulogne-Billancourt a requalifié les 5 ans de CDDU de 3 chefs monteurs de journaux TV de TF1 en CDI et la rupture de leur collaboration est considérée sans cause.

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/intermittents-chefs-monteurs-cddu-tf1-requalifies-cdi-avec-emploi-realisateur,29610.html

1.3) Requalification de CDDU en CDI et licenciement sans cause 

La Cour d’appel requalifie les 20 ans de CDDU en CDI d’un réalisateur de bandes annonces de FRANCE TELEVISION à temps complets et la rupture de la collaboration est considérée sans cause, ce dernier obtient 127.000 euros bruts (Cour d’appel de Paris (pôle 6 – chambre 4), 12 septembre 2018, RG 16/12201).

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/droit-des-intermittents-realisateur-france-televisions-cddu-depuis-ans-obtient,29436.html#PGdOHGCIRbt6HHwU.99

1.4) Requalification de CDDU en CDI et licenciement sans cause :

La Cour d’appel requalifie les 500 CDDU (17 ans) d’une assistance de production, intermittent du spectacle, en CDI et et la rupture de la collaboration est considérée sans cause. Elle obtient aussi un rappel d’heures supplémentaires (Cour d’appel de Paris, 27 juin 2018).

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/droit-des-intermittents-requalification-des-500-cddu-une-assistante-production,29088.html#zJ1PDxfPDL7DLBFg.99

2) Licenciement discriminatoire 

2.1) Licenciement discriminatoire en raison de l’état de santé d’une salariée d’une agence de publicité :

Le Conseil des prud’hommes a considéré que Madame X, responsable juridique, a fait l’objet d’une discrimination en raison de son état de santé et que la société a manqué à son obligation de protéger la santé physique et mentale de la salariée.

Le Conseil condamne le groupe PUBLICIS au paiement de la somme de 162.000 euros pour licenciement nul, dommages et intérêts pour discrimination liée à l’état de santé, dommages et intérêts pour violation de l’obligation sécurité résultat (Conseil de prud’hommes de Paris, 27 juillet 2018).

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/licenciement-discriminatoire-une-juriste-publicis-obtient-162-000-euros-aux,29995.html#dD7Wd3DmDbHD6CsM.99- 16 novembre 2018

2.2) Licenciement discriminatoire en raison de l’état de santé :

Le conseil de prud’hommes de Nanterre a considéré que Madame X, contrôle de gestion, a fait l’objet d’une discrimination en raison de son état de santé. A cet effet, le Conseil condamne la Société SEDIVER au paiement de la somme de 26200 euros à titre de dommages et intérêts pour licenciement nul suite à un harcèlement discriminatoire (Conseil de prud’hommes de Nanterre, 4 mai 2018).

https://blogavocat.fr/space/frederic.chhum/content/licenciement-en-raison-de-l%E2%80%99%C3%A9tat-de-sant%C3%A9-une-contr%C3%B4leuse-de-gestion-de-sediver-obtient-26.200-euros-aux-prud%E2%80%99hommes-%C3%A0-titre-de-dommages-et-int%C3%A9r%C3%AAts-pour-licenciement-nul-suite-%C3%A0-un-harc%C3%A8lement-discriminatoire-cph-nanterre-4

3) Saisie-attribution : validation d’une saisie attribution d’un intermittent du spectacle pour exécuter un jugement prud’homal

La Cour d’appel de Paris a validé la saisie-attribution de Monsieur X pour exécuter un jugement prud’homal au motif que ce dernier a été régulièrement notifié par lettre recommandée avec avis de réception à la société et le procès-verbal de la saisie du 19 avril 2017.

La Cour d’appel condamne la société BO TRAVAIL ! aux entiers dépens d’appel et à payer à Monsieur X la somme de 4 000 euros sur le fondement de l’article 700 du code de procédure civile. (Cour d’appel de Paris, 20 septembre 2018).

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/saisie-attribution-cour-appel-paris-valide-une-saisie-realisee-par-intermittent,29554.html#lEdLwYFdT2SjVOAC.99-

4) Portage salarial : obtention du paiement des heures supplémentaires en appel des prud’hommes suite à la signature d’une rupture conventionnelle

La Cour d’appel de Paris rappelle la compétence du conseil de prud’hommes en matière de portage salarial et octroie ainsi à la salariée de la Société ABC PORTAGE un rappel d’heures supplémentaires de 5.977,39 euros brut à titre de rappels d’heures supplémentaires et de 597,73 euros à titre de congés payés afférents (Cour d’appel de Paris, 24 mai 2018, RG 17/13902, définitif).

https://blogavocat.fr/space/frederic.chhum/contents/201809 -

5) Discrimination (absence d’évolution de carrière) et refus de promotion (référé article 145 du CPC)

Le Conseil de prud’hommes ordonne à la Société FRANCE TELEVISIONS de communiquer à un journaliste rédacteur en chef adjoint les documents retraçant l’évolution de carrière ainsi que les bulletins de paie des 3 dernières années et des mois de décembre de chaque année depuis l’embauche de 19 de ses collègues salariés (Conseil de prud’hommes de Paris, départage 6 avril 2018).

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/discrimination-les-prud-hommes-ordonnent-france-televisions-communiquer,29113.html#TkCeZe5sURkCA1eD.99

6) Inaptitude et désignation d’un médecin expert en référé 

La Cour d’appel de Paris a considéré que la prise d’acte de rupture du 16 août 2017 de son contrat de travail par Monsieur X, salarié de la Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations, n’affecte pas la demande de désignation (par la CDC) d’un médecin expert en référé formé le 20 juillet 2017 (Cour d’appel de Paris, Pôle 6 – chambre 2, 21 juin 2018).

https://www.village-justice.com/articles/inaptitude-designation-medecin-expert-refere-prise-acte-salarie-rend-elle,28884.html#RMcwDGliHQBbuVzI.99

7) Requalification d’un licenciement pour cause réelle et sérieuse en licenciement sans cause réelle et sérieuse d’un sommelier

Le Conseil de prud’hommes de Paris considère que le licenciement de Monsieur X ne repose sur aucune cause réelle et sérieuse. De ce fait, le Conseil condamne la société LAVINIA au paiement de la somme de 8.000 à Monsieur X a titre d’indemnité de licenciement sans cause réelle et sérieuse (Conseil de Prud’hommes de Paris, 6 avril 2017)

https://blogavocat.fr/space/frederic.chhum/content/prud%E2%80%99hommes-un-sommelier-de-lavinia-obtient-8.000-euros-aux-prud%E2%80%99hommes-pour-licenciement-sans-cause-r%C3%A9elle-et-s%C3%A9rieuse-cph-paris-06042017_

***

CHHUM AVOCATS défend notamment des salariés, cadres, intermittents du spectacle, journalistes, cadres dirigeants, célébrités, influenceurs.

Nous plaidons également dans toute la France (Conseil de prud’hommes, Cour d’appel, Tribunal correctionnel, TGI).

1) Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS plaide devant les Cours d’Appel (Paris, Versailles, etc.), devant tous les conseils de prud’hommes d’Ile de France (Paris, Melun, Meaux, Fontainebleau, Auxerre, Sens, Créteil, Bobigny, Evry) et dans toute la France (Lyon, Marseille, Lille, etc.).

CHHUM AVOCATS plaide aussi devant le TASS, le Tribunal de Grande Instance et le Tribunal correctionnel.

2) Nantes

CHHUM AVOCATS Paris, avocats en droit du travail et droit pénal du travail, possède un bureau secondaire à Nantes

Le bureau est situé au 41, quai de la Fosse à Nantes (en face du Palais de justice).

3) Lille

CHHUM AVOCATS Paris, avocats en droit du travail et droit pénal du travail, possède un bureau secondaire à Lille depuis le 1er mars 2019.

Le bureau est situé au 25, rue Gounod à Lille.

Frédéric CHHUM, Avocats à la Cour et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

e-mail : chhum@chhum-avocats.com

http://twitter.com/#!/fchhum

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

 

 

 

Par frederic.chhum le 30/10/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 3 semaines 15 heures

The sending of SMS (Short Message Service) licentious and pornographic, repeatedly, by a manager to its subordinate, justifies a dismissal for serious misconduct?

This is the question to be answered by the Court of Cassation.

In the judgment of September 25, 2019 (n° 17-31171), the Court of Cassation considers that the "game of reciprocal seduction" between the superior and the employee who pleaded to be harassed sexually, allowed to dismiss this qualification of harassment sexual.

This judgment is not published in the bulletin of the judgments of the Court of Cassation.

1) Recalling the facts

Engaged April 3, 2000 by the Transdev Ile-de-France as team manager to exercise the last state of the contractual relationship the functions of operating manager, MG was dismissed for misconduct on July 31st, 2014, for acts of sexual harassment.

In a judgment of October 11th, 2017, the Court of Appeal of Versailles considered that the dismissal for sexual harassment was not based on a serious misconduct and it condemned the company to pay to the employee sums as compensation compensation notice , paid vacation leave, severance pay, salary on lay-off and related vacation pay.

The company has appealed in cassation.

In a judgment of  September 25th, 2019, the Court of Cassation dismissed the company's appeal.

2) Decision of September 25th, 2019 of the Court of Cassation

2.1) The sending to his subordinate, from his business phone, of text messages with inappropriate and pornographic content, thus adopting a behavior making him lose all authority and any credibility can justify a dismissal disciplinary

The employer criticizes the decision to say that the dismissal is not based on serious misconduct and to sentence him to pay the employee sums as compensation for notice, paid vacation, severance pay, salary for layoff and related paid leave.

The Court of Cassation notes that "the employee, carrying out the duties of operating manager of a company with more than one hundred people, had, from his professional telephone, repeatedly and for two years, addressed to an employee whom he had acquainted himself at his place of work and of which he was the superior, text messages with inappropriate and pornographic content, thus adopting a behavior which makes him lose all authority and all credibility in the exercise of its direction function and therefore incompatible with its responsibilities, the Court of Appeal could deduce that these facts were related to the life of the company and could justify a disciplinary dismissal ".

2.2) The employee had sent, from his business phone, repetitively and durably between 2011 and 2013, text messages with inappropriate content and pornography to an employee with whom he had entered a game of mutual seduction, these facts were not constituting serious misconduct making it impossible to maintain the employee in the company

The employer argued:

- that the serious fault is that which makes it impossible to maintain the employee in the company;

- even assuming that he cannot receive the qualification of sexual harassment in the strict sense of the term, the behavior of a superior consisting in repeatedly and very insistently sending out licentious and even pornographic SMS messages from his professional mobile phone, constitutes a serious fault justifying an immediate departure of the employee of the company;

- that the Court of Appeal found that it was established that the employee had repeatedly and insistently addressed Ms. I ... SMS text content and even pornographic, the employee victim of this behavior having finally alerted his employer and deposited a handrail;

- it was still apparent from his findings that the employer had reacted immediately as soon as he became aware of the employee's severely misbehaved behavior, which he had immediately laid off and summoned to a prior interview, without therefore in any way tolerate the behavior in question;

- finally, the findings of the Court of Appeal that in the letter of dismissal the employer had taken care to inform the employee that "either your behavior is sexual harassment, or at least it is immoral and in total incompatibility with the functions you hold ";

- that by nevertheless excluding the existence of serious misconduct, the Court of Appeal violated Article L. 1234-9 of the Labor Code;

The Court of Cassation nevertheless rejects the appeal.

It states that "having noted, by own reasons and adopted, that the employee had sent, from his business phone, repeatedly and durably between 2011 and 2013, text messages with inappropriate content and pornographic to an employee with whom he had entered in a game of reciprocal seduction, the court of appeal could deduce that these facts did not constitute a serious fault making it impossible to maintain the employee in the company; that exercising the powers it has under Article L. 1235-1 of the Labor Code, it decided that these facts constituted a real and serious cause of dismissal ".

3) Analysis by CHHUM AVOCATS law office (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

3.1) Sending SMS to inappropriate and pornographic content = loses all authority and credibility to the manager → Justifies a disciplinary dismissal

First of all, the Court of Cassation considers that can justify a disciplinary dismissal, the sending by a superior to his subordinate, from his business phone, text messages with inappropriate content and pornographic, thus adopting a behavior making him lose all authority and all credibility.

Messages of a pornographic nature are relatable to the company and incompatible with the responsibilities of the supervisor.

It should be noted that the phone used by the manager to send pornographic text messages was his business phone.

It is likely that the solution would have been the same if the SMS had been sent with his personal phone, because the manager must be exemplary behavior.

3.2) Manager / subordinate mutual seduction disqualifies sexual harassment → serious misconduct cannot be accepted

Moreover, in this case, the operations manager had sent, from his business phone, repetitively and durably between 2011 and 2013, text messages with inappropriate and pornographic content to an employee with whom he had entered a game of seduction reciprocal.

The Court of Cassation following the argument of the Court of Appeal of Versailles considers that these facts do not constitute a serious fault making it impossible to maintain the employee in the company.

Article 1153-1 of the Labor Code states that "Any act of harassing any person for the purpose of obtaining favors of a sexual nature for his benefit or for the benefit of a third party is prohibited".

The Court of Cassation considers that there is a game of "mutual seduction" and not sexual harassment because of the attitude of the employee and the relationship context between the two employees.

This judgment must be approved.

Sources:

Court of Cassation September 25th 2019, n° 17-31171

https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichJuriJudi.do?idTexte=JURITEXT000039188588

Porn at work: beware of dismissal for serious misconduct https://www.village-justice.com/articles/porno-work-attention-lawen-law-for-fault-grave-cass-October-2018,29747.html

 

Frédéric CHHUM avocat et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

e-mail: chhum@chhum-avocats.com

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

Par frederic.chhum le 24/10/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 3 semaines 6 jours

Aux termes de l’article L. 3221-2 du code du travail, « Tout employeur assure, pour un même travail ou pour un travail de valeur égale, l'égalité de rémunération entre les femmes et les hommes ».

Pour lire l’article du Figaro, cliquez sur le lien ci-dessous.

https://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/une-entreprise-condamnee-a-payer-161-000-euros-a-une-ancienne-employee-pour-l-avoir-moins-payee-qu-un-homme-20191023

Vous pouvez aussi lire ou relire nos articles sur l’index égalité femmes / hommes :

1) Egalite femmes/hommes : les entreprises de plus de 250 salariés doivent publier leur index au 1er septembre 2019 ! https://www.village-justice.com/articles/egalite-femmes-hommes-les-entreprises-251-1000-salaries-doivent-publier-leur,32191.html

2) Egalité femmes/hommes : les précisions sur l’index apportées par le décret du 29 avril 2019. https://www.village-justice.com/articles/egalite-femmes-hommes-les-precisions-sur-index-apportees-par-decret-no2019-382,31715.html#q8EPaUk1hiqFFS1p.99

3) Egalité de salaire femmes / hommes : comment calculer l’index ? https://www.village-justice.com/articles/egalite-salaire-femmes-hommes-comment-calculer-index,30749.html

4) Index égalité Femmes / Hommes : le PowerPoint de CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille) du Campus des avocats de Barreau de Paris du 3 juillet 2019

https://blogavocat.fr/space/frederic.chhum/content/index-%C3%A9galit%C3%A9-femmes-hommes-le-powerpoint-de-chhum-avocats-paris-nantes-lille-du-campus-des-avocats-du-3-juillet-2019_

5) Égalité Femmes/Hommes : pourquoi l’index est un outil biaisé ?
https://www.village-justice.com/articles/salaries-cadres-cadres-dirigeants-egalite-femmes-hommes-pourquoi-index-est,32015.html#eMPpDXuRUO19D8mA.99

6) Salariés, cadres : Egalité hommes/femmes : les 10 nouveaux droits des femmes et/ou des hommes issus de la loi du 4 août 2014

https://www.lagbd.org/index.php/Salari%C3%A9s,_cadres_:_Egalit%C3%A9_hommes/femmes_:_les_10_nouveaux_droits_des_femmes_et/ou_des_hommes_issus_de_la_loi_du_4_ao%C3%BBt_2014_(fr)

Source : Article L. 3221-2 du code du travail

https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006072050&idArticle=LEGIARTI000006902818&dateTexte=&categorieLien=cid

Frédéric CHHUM avocat et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

e-mail: chhum@chhum-avocats.com

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

Par frederic.chhum le 22/10/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 4 semaines 1 jour

Vous avez moins de 10 ans d’expérience et avez quitté la profession, cette soirée est pour vous : expliquez-nous vos raisons, motivations et insatisfactions.

Cette réunion était organisée le 8 octobre 2019 par le bâtonnier de Paris à la Maison du barreau de Paris.

Un échange libre et très intéressant.

***

La présente note est un florilège des témoignages entendus lors de cette réunion.

Beaucoup d’anciennes avocates / avocats ont témoigné.

Les témoignages ont relaté les difficultés de la collaboration libérale.

Pour lire l’intégralité de la brève, cliquez sur le lien ci-dessous.

https://www.legavox.fr/blog/frederic-chhum-avocats/vous-avez-quitte-profession-avocats-27607.htm

 

Frédéric CHHUM avocat et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

e-mail: chhum@chhum-avocats.com

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

 

Par frederic.chhum le 16/10/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 1 mois 5 jours

In Décideurs 2019, CHHUM AVOCATS is ranked:

- Excellent for the council of employees and union organizations;

- Strong reputation for risk litigation and labor criminal law;

- Famous practice for the representation of executives.

***

Defense of employees, intermittent entertainment, journalists, freelancers, executives, senior executives (cadres dirigeants), whistleblowers, unions, staff representatives.

***

The Frédéric CHHUM law firm (Paris, Nantes, Lille) advises mainly employees, executives, senior executives, in the context of disputes with their employer and / or negotiation of departures (transaction, contractual break).

The law firm Frédéric CHHUM has also developed an expertise in audiovisual work law, media, entertainment and luxury (intermittent entertainment, technicians, artists, journalists, freelancers).

He is involved in litigation in labor law (requalification of fixed-term contracts full-time intermittent entertainment, overtime, dispute flat-rate days or senior management, compensation of employees percentage, requalification of contracts Freelance in employment contract, unfair dismissal of employees, etc.).

The law firm Frédéric CHHUM also intervenes for foreign employees or foreign companies, and works frequently in English language.

Since March 1st, 2016, the Frédéric CHHUM law firm has opened a secondary office in Nantes which is headed by Maître Camille Colombo (labor law, labor law) and since 1 March 2019 an office in Lille headed by Maître Marilou Ollivier ( Labor Law, Criminal Labor Law).

In December 2018, Maître Frédéric CHHUM was elected as a member of the Paris Bar Council (mandate 2019-2021).

POSITIONING OF CABINET CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

• Negotiated departures of employees, managers, executives and senior executives (cadres dirigeants)

• Defense of the intermittent workers in the entertainment business (technicians, artists)

• Defense of whistleblowers (lanceurs d’alerte) • Right of employees, intermittent entertainment

• Right of journalists (journalists)

• Model rights (mannequins)

• International employment contract (secondment, expatriation, impatriate)

• Criminal labor law (droit penal du travail) (abusive use of the fixed-term contract, offense of obstruction)

• Advice and defense of works councils (comité d’entreprise, CSE) and shop stewards

• Advice in the negotiation of agreements

 

Frédéric CHHUM avocat et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

e-mail: chhum@chhum-avocats.com

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083

Par frederic.chhum le 16/10/19
Dernier commentaire ajouté il y a 1 mois 5 jours

Dans le classement Décideurs 2019, CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille) est classé :

Excellent pour le conseil des salariés et organisations syndicales ; Forte Notoriété pour les contentieux à risques et droit pénal du travail ; Pratique réputée pour la représentation des cadres dirigeants.

Défense de salariés, intermittents du spectacle, journalistes, pigistes, cadres, cadres dirigeants, lanceurs d'alerte, Syndicats, CSE, Représentants du personnel

Le Cabinet d’avocats Frédéric CHHUM conseille principalement des salariés, cadres, cadres dirigeants, dans le cadre de litiges avec leur employeur et/ou de négociation de départs (transaction, rupture conventionnelle).

Le Cabinet d’avocats Frédéric CHHUM a aussi développé une expertise en droit du travail de l’audiovisuel, des médias, du spectacle et du luxe (intermittents du spectacle, techniciens, artistes, journalistes, pigistes).

Il intervient dans les contentieux en droit du travail (requalification de CDD en CDI à temps plein des intermittents du spectacle, heures supplémentaires, contestation de forfait jours ou de la qualité de cadre dirigeant, rémunération des salariés au pourcentage, requalification de contrats de Freelance en contrat de travail, licenciement abusif de salariés, etc.).

Le cabinet Frédéric CHHUM intervient aussi pour des salariés étrangers ou des entreprises étrangères, et travaille fréquemment en langue anglaise.

Le Cabinet Frédéric CHHUM a ouvert depuis le 1er mars 2016, un bureau secondaire à Nantes qui est dirigé par Maître Camille Colombo (Droit du travail, Droit Pénal du travail) et depuis le 1er mars 2019 un bureau à Lille dirigé par Maître Marilou Ollivier (Droit du travail, Droit Pénal du travail).

Maître Frédéric CHHUM a été élu en décembre 2018 membre du Conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris (mandat 2019-2021).

POSITIONNEMENT DU CABINET CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

• Départs négociés de salariés, cadres et cadres dirigeants

• Défense des intermittents du spectacle (techniciens, artistes)

• Défense des lanceurs d'alerte• Droit des salariés, intermittents du spectacle

• Droit des journalistes

• Droit des mannequins

• Contrat de travail international (détachement, expatriation, impatrié)

• Droit pénal du travail (recours abusif au CDD d’usage, délit d’entrave)

• Conseil et défense des comités d’entreprise et délégués syndicaux

• Conseil dans la négociation de conventions

Frédéric CHHUM avocat et membre du conseil de l’ordre des avocats de Paris

CHHUM AVOCATS (Paris, Nantes, Lille)

e-mail: chhum@chhum-avocats.com

www.chhum-avocats.fr

https://www.instagram.com/fredericchhum/?hl=fr

.Paris: 4 rue Bayard 75008 Paris tel: 0142560300

.Nantes: 41, Quai de la Fosse 44000 Nantes tel: 0228442644

.Lille: 25, rue Gounod 59000 Lille tel: 0320135083