Jan
11
coemploi - confusion d'intérêts, d'activités et de direction - caractérisation .DROIT du travail

Cass. Soc., 10 décembre 2015 (pourvois n° 14-19.316 à 14-19.474)

Matière : droit du travail

Mots-clés : coemploi - confusion d'intérêts, d'activités et de direction - caractérisation

.
Commentaire : l’arrêt de la Chambre sociale du 10 décembre 2015 paraît confirmer le mouvement de reflux de la notion de « coemploi » que certains ont cru pouvoir desceller dans la jurisprudence récente.
En l’espèce, une société est placée en liquidation judiciaire peu de temps après avoir été rachetée entièrement par une autre société. Comme souvent dans ce cas, faute d’avoir pu en obtenir le paiement auprès de leur employeur direct, les salariés s’adressent à la société mère du groupe auquel ils appartiennent pour lui réclamer le versement des indemnités liées à leur licenciement. Ils prétendent alors que cette dernière est leur coemployeur. Afin de faire droit à leur demande, la jurisprudence exige traditionnellement que les salariés démontrent qu’il existe une confusion d’intérêts, d’activités et de direction.
Les juges du fond avaient cru pouvoir constater la réunion de ces trois éléments en raison des liens très étroits existants entre la société mère et de la filiale. Celle-ci était en effet dirigée par un ancien salarié de la société mère qui se rendait régulièrement au siège de cette dernière et était en contact téléphonique permanent avec elle. De plus, la société mère s’était impliquée très directement dans la gestion des installations téléphoniques et informatiques de sa filiale et même des ressources humaines de cette dernière. Enfin, la société mère était semble-t-il intervenue dans des choix stratégiques en matière commerciale afin que sa filiale abandonne sa candidature à un appel d’offres au profit d’une autre filiale du groupe. La cour d’appel relève en outre que la société mère a finalement refusé d’apporter le concours financier qu’elle s’était engagée à fournir au moment de l’acquisition, ce qui a précipité la mise en liquidation judiciaire de sa filiale, laquelle était au demeurant antérieurement un concurrent.
En dépit de ces indices nombreux, la Cour de cassation estime à l’inverse que les conditions du coemploi ne sont pas réunies. Elle rappelle d’abord qu’« une société faisant partie d’un groupe ne peut être considérée comme un coemployeur, à l’égard du personnel employé par une autre, que s’il existe entre elles, au-delà de la nécessaire coordination des actions économiques entre les sociétés appartenant à un même groupe et de l’état de domination économique que cette appartenance peut engendrer, une confusion d’intérêts, d’activités et de direction, se manifestant par une immixtion dans la gestion économique et sociale de cette dernière ». Ensuite, elle estime que ni « le fait que les dirigeants de la filiale proviennent du groupe et soient en étroite collaboration avec la société mère », ni le fait que « celle-ci ait pris durant les quelques mois suivant la prise de contrôle de la filiale des décisions visant à sa réorganisation dans le cadre de la politique du groupe, puis ait renoncé à son concours financier destiné à éviter une liquidation judiciaire de la filiale, tout en s’impliquant dans les recherches de reclassement des salariés au sein du groupe, ne pouvait suffire à caractériser une situation de coemploi ».
Précédent jurisprudentiel : Soc. 2 juill. 2014 (pourvoi n° 13-15.208)

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