Feb
12
PLAGIAT, CONTREFACON, IMITATION & INSPIRATION

«Le poète inexpérimenté imite, le poète d'expérience vole; le mauvais poète massacre ce qu'il emprunte, le bon poète en fait quelque chose de meilleur, du moins quelque chose de différent.» (T.S. Eliot, 1932)

- Plus ou moins récemment, la presse s'est faite l'écho de nombreuses affaires de plagiats prétendus ou avérés.

On peut ainsi citer, sans que l'auteur des présentes lignes prenne position sur la réalité éventuelle de ces supposés plagiats (et étant précisé que certains des exemples évoqués ci-dessous correspondent à des emprunts licites autorisés par l'auteur initial) :

- Le « DJ » (2004) de Diam's et le « Quien serà » (1953) de Pablo Beltàn Ruiz ; http://www.musicme.com/#/Diam's/biographie/

- Le « Frozen » (1998) de Madonna et le « Ma vie fout le camp » de Salvatore Acquaviva ;

http://tf1.lci.fr/infos/economie/2005/0,,3264224,00.html

- Le «Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'» de Mickael Jackson et le « Soul Mokossa » (1972) de Manu Dibango ;

http://www.20min.ch/ro/entertainment/people/story/Manu-Dibango-accuse-Rihanna-et-Michael-Jackson-de-vol-28219120

- Le "The Last Time" (1965) des Rolling Stones (réorchestré par Andrew Oldham) et le "Bittersweet Symphony" (1997) de The Verve ;

- Le « Relax (Take it easy) » de Mika (2007) et le « I (just) died in your arms» (1987) de Cutting Crews ;

- Le « Viva la vida » (2008) de Coldplay et le « If I could fly » (2004) de Joe Satriani ;

Les controverses liées aux emprunts prétendus d'une œuvre sur une autre ne sont pas cantonnées au seul domaine musical.

En matière de mode vestimentaire :

http://www.tendances-de-mode.com/2007/08/26/317-topshop-dans-la-tourmente-chloe

En matière littéraire :

http://passouline.blog.lemonde.fr/2008/09/10/dolto-retourne-au-tribunal/

- Le plagiat : entre la contrefaçon d'une œuvre et la reprise d'une simple idée

1- La contrefaçon correspond à la « reproduction, représentation ou diffusion, par quelque moyen que ce soit, d'une oeuvre de l'esprit en violation des droits de l'auteur » (Code de la Propriété intellectuelle, art. L. 335-3).

Bien évidemment, la copie servile de la totalité ou d'une partie caractéristique d'une œuvre originale constitue une contrefaçon et peut être sanctionnée juridiquement.

Celle-ci est toutefois rare en pratique (les contrefacteurs, prudents, cherchant le plus souvent à imiter, plus qu'à copier).

2- Par contre, la reprise d'une simple idée ou même d'un style est totalement licite.

En effet, les idées ne sont pas protégées par le droit d'auteur : on dit qu'elles sont « de libre parcours ».

L'idée ne devient protégeable qu'à compter du moment où elle est matérialisée dans une œuvre concrète et singulière.

Ainsi, si l'artiste Christo peut s'opposer à la reproduction de l'image du Pont Neuf "emballé" par ses soins , il ne peut interdire qu'un tiers reprenne son idée pour emballer un autre monument (http://www.christojeanneclaude.net/pn.shtml).

De même, si l'héritière de Picasso peut s'opposer à la reproduction d'une œuvre de son aïeul, elle ne peut empêcher un artiste de réaliser une œuvre s'inspirant du style cubiste de l'auteur de Guernica : l'ensemble des œuvres peintes par Picasso durant sa période cubiste sont individuellement protégeables, mais le genre auquel elles appartiennent ne l'ait pas.

Entre ces deux situations relativement simples, se situe celle plus équivoque du plagiat.

3- La notion de "plagiat" ne fait l'objet d'aucune définition juridique.

Par ce terme, l'on désigne la reprise d'informations ou d'idées : le plagiaire s'inspire de l'œuvre préexistante, mais ne la copie pas servilement.

Il s'agirait d'un comportement plus amoral (avec toute la subjectivité inhérente à un tel adjectif) qu'illégal.

Ainsi, dans la célèbre affaire "Bicyclette bleue" c/ "Autant en emporte le Vent", les magistrats ont reconnu le droit, pour l'auteur de cette première œuvre, de s'inspirer des thématiques développées dans la seconde.

Toutefois, la frontière entre l'inspiration et l'imitation est parfois difficile à établir.

Dans ce contexte, certains artistes en mal d'inspiration peuvent tenter de tirer profit de ce qui n'est ni une faille juridique, ni un flou artistique, mais bien plutôt la manifestation de la subjectivité naturelle de l'homme qui se cache derrière le juge.

Commentaires

Nom: 
George Moustaki
Site: 
http://mangerbouger.fr

En meme temps, t'es jeune, t'as la vie devant toi :)

Nom: 
Sanjay NAVY
Site: 
http://

Cher George,

Merci pour ce commentaire d'une rare pertinence.

J'ai, un bref instant, cru que mon blog était fréquenté par des artistes prestigieux.

Toutefois, j'ai constaté que je ne répondais pas à Georges mais à George...

Me voila revenu à davantage de modestie...

Nom: 
Fleur
Site: 
http://

.....pour cet article qui m'a bien éclairé sur mon problème...Merci pour le partage !

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